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Testosterone imbalances


High or low levels of testosterone can lead to dysfunction in the parts of the body normally regulated by the hormone.

When a man has low testosterone, or hypogonadism, he may experience:

reduced sex drive
erectile dysfunction
low sperm count
enlarged or swollen breast tissue
Over time, these symptoms may develop in the following ways:

loss of body hair
loss of muscle bulk
loss of strength
increased body fat
Chronic, or ongoing, low testosterone may lead to osteoporosis, mood swings, reduced energy, and testicular shrinkage.

Causes can include:

testicular injury, such as castration
infection of the testicles
medications, such as opiate analgesics
disorders that affect the hormones, such as pituitary tumors or high prolactin levels
chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, kidney and liver disease, obesity, and HIV/AIDS
genetic diseases, such as Klinefelter syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, hemochromatosis, Kallman syndrome, and myotonic dystrophy
Too much testosterone, on the other hand, can lead to the triggering of puberty before the age of 9 years. This condition would mainly affect younger men and is much rarer.

In women, however, high testosterone levels can lead to male pattern baldness, a deep voice, and menstrual irregularities, as well as:

growth and swelling of the clitoris
changes in body shape
reduction in breast size
oily skin
facial hair growth around the body, lips, and chin
Recent studies have also linked high testosterone levels in women to the risk of uterine fibroids.

Testosterone imbalances can be detected with a blood test and treated accordingly.
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